F.D.A. Had Report of Short Circuit in Heart Devices
By BARRY MEIER
Published: September 12, 2005
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Months before the Food and Drug Administration issued a safety alert in June
about problems with
heart devices, the agency received a report from the company showing that
some of those units were short-circuiting, agency records obtained by the
New York Times
But the agency did not make that data public at the time because it treats
the information it receives in such reports as confidential. While the
agency has a policy of reviewing the reports within 90 days, it is unclear
when regulators did so within that time frame or how they first interpreted
As part of a lengthy annual report that Guidant submitted to the F.D.A. in
February, the company disclosed data showing that one of its widely used
defibrillators, the Ventak Prizm 2 DR, was short-circuiting at the rate of
about one a month, a rate that some doctors say was troubling. A month
later, a college student who had one of those units implanted in his chest
died of sudden cardiac arrest.
In June, the F.D.A. issued an alert about the model, later updating it to
say that the short circuits, while rare, posed a significant risk because
they could render the device useless just when it was needed most.
Defibrillators use jolts of electricity to stop erratic heart rhythms, which
can be fatal.
Guidant, which knew about the model's flaw for three years but did not tell
physicians about it until May, has recently found itself in the spotlight.
But the disclosure that the F.D.A. also had data that might have alerted
doctors is likely to increase scrutiny of the agency's policy of not
releasing the information it requires heart device makers to submit, as well
as how quickly it reviews such reports.
Dr. Daniel G. Schultz, the director of the F.D.A.'s Center for Devices and
Radiological Health, said in an interview Friday that it would tie up too
many resources to review hundreds of filings the F.D.A. receives each year
and determine which data could be routinely released and what should be
treated as confidential.
Makers of defibrillators and pacemakers, which regulate heart rhythms, must
file annual reports with the F.D.A. that say how often, and why, their
devices fail. The level of detail in these reports, which are submitted on
paper, is far higher than is required for other medical devices because of
their life-sustaining roles. Those filings also include much more data than
the summaries that companies give to doctors.
The issue of how much safety data is disclosed to doctors and patients is
expected to be a major focus of a meeting on Friday of heart specialists in
Washington that was called as a result of the Guidant controversy. That
meeting may pit physicians who want more information about device failures
against manufacturers, as well as other doctors, who say the current system
is adequate to ensure patient safety.
Last year, both the F.D.A. and the drug industry came under fire for failing
to release data about clinical drug trials like those involving the use of
antidepressants in children. The Guidant controversy appears to be expanding
that debate into the medical devices field.
Dr. Shultz said he did not believe that the effort of disclosing the massive
amounts of data sent in by manufacturers would be an effective use of agency
resources and time.
"It does not at first blush look like an efficient way of getting
information to the public in a timely fashion," he said. He added that he
hoped the meeting Friday would lead to improved communication between the
agency, device makers and doctors about device-related problems.
The agency's inquiry into Guidant began after The Times reported in late May
that the company had not told doctors about flaws in the Prizm 2 DR and kept
selling older versions of the model after developing an improved one in
2002. Guidant has said it knows of 28 units that have short-circuited out of
26,000 made before the modification.
Dr. Schultz said he was not familiar with the February report from Guidant
that broke out the short circuit figures. He said he did not have
information about what percentage of reports were reviewed within 90 days.
Told of Dr. Schultz's comments about the agency's disclosure policies, Dr.
Douglas P. Zipes, a professor at the Indiana University School of Medicine,
said he took exception to them, saying he believed that the Guidant episode
had highlighted gaps in how the F.D.A. oversaw the safety of heart devices.
Dr. Zipes added that both the agency and manufacturers needed to provide
doctors with more data about product failures.
"It would help us put into better perspective the quality of each
manufacturer's devices," said Dr. Zipes, who is also a consultant to
a major device manufacturer that also makes a defibrillator, and who will be
participating in Friday's meeting.
Guidant has said it made all required disclosures to the F.D.A., including
notifying the agency in its 2003 annual report about the manufacturing
change to the Prizm 2 DR. The company also submitted several filings in
recent years to a publicly available F.D.A. database about the failures of
specific units, citing short circuits as the cause.
The F.D.A. does start investigations of product problems based on the
reports in that database and in annual filings. But unless F.D.A. officials
were closely monitoring the database, which receives tens of thousands of
reports a year, the annual report in February may have been their first
chance to gauge the Guidant problem's scope, because it was the first of the
annual filings to say that a number of devices had failed because of
electrical short circuits.
The problem came to light as a result of the death in March of Joshua Oukrop,
a college student in Minnesota who received a flawed device. Since then,
Guidant has issued recalls covering both that device and tens of thousands
of other defibrillators and pacemakers.
The three largest makers of heart devices - Guidant, Medtronic and St. Jude
Medical - regularly provide doctors with what are called product performance
Medtronic's reports are the most detailed, breaking down the number of
failures for a model into two broad categories: electrical failures and
early battery depletion. Guidant and St. Jude provide only an estimated
"survival" rate for each model over time, without giving the cause of
failure. That rate indicates the risk that the device will have to be
replaced because of a problem or because its batteries are depleted, which
normally happens after five years.
In its 2004 product report, for example, Guidant reported that its Prizm DR
2 had an estimated survival rate of 98.14 percent after 3.5 years.
A Medtronic spokesman, Robert Clark, said the company believed that its
annual reports gave doctors the information they needed in an easy-to-use
format. Mr. Clark added that Medtronic did not believe that releasing the
detailed F.D.A. reports would be helpful. But both Mr. Clark and a St. Jude
spokeswoman, Charlotte Fransen, said their companies were interested in
discussing such matters at Friday's meeting of heart specialists. A Guidant
spokesman, Steven Tragash, did not respond to an e-mail inquiry about the
Several doctors said that knowing specifically why devices are failing is
important because some problems are more significant than others.
"Device failures that are abrupt and catastrophic are more critical than
ones that happen slowly or don't interfere with life-saving functions," said
Dr. Charles Swerdlow, a cardiologist in Los Angeles who is also a consultant
The F.D.A. initially refused a Times request for several years of Guidant
annual filings that was made under the Freedom of Information Act,
contending that the filings contained trade secrets. The Times appealed that
decision to the agency, and the F.D.A., without citing a specific reason,
reversed its position and last week released much of the data.
Those filings show the wide gap between the data provided to the F.D.A. and
that given to doctors. For each defibrillator model it sells, Guidant
provides data that runs for three to four pages citing specific reasons for
device failure, including memory problems and prematurely low batteries, and
how many units failed for that reason.
In its 2004 filing, Guidant devoted a 96-page section to data on its
defibrillator models. In a table on page 60 of that section, it reported
that 10 Prizm 2 DR's had an "electrical short" between June 1, 2003, and May
31, 2004, the period covered by the filing. That is a failure rate of almost
one device a month.
The filings may also raise new questions about Guidant's reporting of
problems with the Prizm 2 DR. For instance, while Guidant has said that two
of the units short-circuited in 2002, the 2004 report is the first annual
filing to use the term "electrical short." The term "electrical overstress"
was used in earlier filings, but it also appeared as a separate category
from "electrical short" in the 2004 report. That report was submitted by
Guidant this February, eight months after the period it covered. In the
three prior years, Guidant took three months to file.
Mr. Tragash, the Guidant spokesman, did not respond to questions about
specific reports but reiterated that the company had made all required
In December, Guidant agreed to be acquired by
Johnson & Johnson
in a deal worth $25.4 billion. Johnson & Johnson has said it plans to
proceed with the acquisition but is reviewing issues related to the device
The F.D.A. says its investigation of Guidant is continuing and it has not
determined what action, if any, to take against the company.
In recent months, some of Guidant's most outspoken critics have been the
doctors who treated Mr. Oukrop, the student who died. They say that if the
company had made them aware of the problem, they would have quickly replaced
Mr. Oukrop's defibrillator. On Friday, one of those physicians, Dr. Robert
Hauser of Minneapolis, said he was irate to hear that the F.D.A. was given
such data in February. Dr. Hauser said that if the agency had disclosed it,
it might have saved Mr. Oukrop's life.
"They probably didn't even read the report," he said. "This is just